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The history of the method

The idea of studying the properties of objects through the use of crown discharges formed around them in the electromagnetic field of high tension, has a long history. In 1777, Professor Lichtenberg observed a characteristic crown glow while studying electrical discharges on the powder-coated surface of the insulator. A century later the similar class of luminescence, recorded on the photographic plate, was called the "figures of Lichtenberg."

The first person who noticed the difference in the glow of biological objects on the photographic plate, depending on the state of the organism, was а well known in the XIX and early XX centuries, scientist Narkevich-Iodko. He based the observation of the state of the organism,  at his own invention — a simple electrical device that allowed to capture the glow around the objects on the photographic plate. Narkevich-Iodko called his method of photographing  - electrography.

At the end of the XIX century were very popular demonstration experiments of Nikola Tesla, which clearly showed the possibility of visualization of gas discharges (GDV)near living organisms. Tesla recorded discharges near various objects, being in high-frequency currents, including the human body, with a conventional camera. However, the complexity of the technique used then to obtain electrographic images prevented the widespread use of the method. Electrophotographic images were also made bу Bitner, Pogorelsky, Czech physicist Navrátil, American scientist Never, German scientist Zapek. They noted that the recorded images register unknown at that time types of radiation.

The beginning of the XX century was marked by a change of scientific paradigms in physics and technology. New ideas have shifted the center of gravity of scientific and practical applications, which is why these works have been long forgotten. And only at the end of the thirties of the XX century the Soviet inventors re-approached these studies. Amateur researchers Kirlian spouses obtained photos of crown discharge in a high-frequency electromagnetic field, in which sick or damaged leaves were glowing crowns, different from healthy leaves.

This effect repeated many times on different objects and was called the Kirlian effect. The method of studying objects based on the "Kirlian effect" was associated exclusively with registration on photographic material. Spouses Kirlian created and tested the original discharge optical attachment to the microscope, which served as the beginning of a new direction of their research — visual observation of electrical discharges. The observation of the corona (gas) discharge realized through such a device is called "gas-discharge visualization"or GDV. A powerful incentive for the practical application of the Kirlian effect for the study of man became a system of splitting images of the crown discharge of human fingers into sectors, developed in the 80 years by Dr. Mandel. According to the concept of Oriental medicine, as well as, Voll method, worked out on this base, meridians go from the fingers and toes deep into the body, passing through the skin. These meridians are biologically active points (BAP), which correspond to a particular organ or group of organs. Mandel projected the points of two meridians, passing on one finger, on the plane of the Kirlian crown of this finger, dividing the crown into sectors, which include the most important organs, which indicate the BAP of the two meridians. Thus, according to this breakdown, the characteristic of the corona discharge in certain sectors of the fingers and toes of a person corresponded to a certain state of human organs.

In connection with the development of computer technology and the attractiveness of the diagnostic method, new hardware is used to visualize the corona discharge("Kirlian effect", GDV) of objects. Thus, in the early 90-ies of the last century in Germany (Michael Koenig and specialists of the "Biomed" company) and in Russia (K. G. Korotkov, with the participation of employees of LITMO - method of gas-discharge visualization of GDV) were developed devices using optoelectronic equipment with a high voltage generator for computer visualization of the corona discharge of objects.

However, it was necessary to understand that we are dealing with dissipative, dynamic structures that are completely incompatible with an unambiguous static interpretation and irreducible to the latter. It is in the dynamics that the true essence of the crown-discharge process, produced by a biological or physical object, is manifested. Indeed, the nature of the crown discharge glow has a randomly determined structure. Individual elements of the crown of the image, snatched a random picture, sometimes could be interpreted as a manifestation of certain dysfunctions and even pathologies. At the same time, the subsequent registration of these images from the same area of the skin did not detect such elements. Therefore, quite logically, the need the need for registration of the dynamics of luminescence to the crown became obvious.

The large-scale study of dynamic processes of visualization of crown discharges of the studied objects was initiated in 2002. At the scientific and practical conference at the international school for the analysis of nonlinear dynamics of systems and signals — EUROATTRACTOR (Warsaw, Poland) Edward Kryzhanovsky showed new opportunities and prospects for a dynamic approach. He  removed many ambiguities in the study of crown-discharge processes for biological and liquid-phase objects. Thus, the necessity of dynamic consideration for such research methods was justified. Earlier, in the theses to the St. Petersburg Congress "NIS", the same author with a group of researchers also noted the importance of the study of corona discharge in dynamics with an intermediate name — dynamic GDV, however, in that message, in fact, only the need to refer to such studies was summarized. Then a series of experiments was conducted, what showed the advantages and unique features of the method. One of the most significant results, obtained by the same researchers, together with the company "Aveda" (USA), was a new dynamic approach made it possible to identify differences between natural and synthetic aromatic oils having the same chemical composition. Then there were other works related to the dynamic registration of the crown. However, the absence of noise-resistant electronic chipsdevices did not allow a wide application of this method. In addition, to work with biological objects, it was necessary to select the appropriate frequency of EMF, which would not have a negative impact in the process of dynamic registration.

The creation of such noise –resistant and safe device became possible only in 2007, thanks to developments  and innovation of the "Bioentech" company. Because of this dynamic approach has given new opportunities for researchers, irreducible to static classical scheme of the GDV, in 2007 it was proposed to call a dynamic method CROWNSCOPY (crown eng. — crown discharge and scopy greek. — to consider, to observe the dynamics, analyze). In addition, the English and Spanish versions of the name — gas-discharge visualization, have a very ambiguous meaning (which is emphasized, for example, in the book Korotkov K. G. "Principles of analysis of GDV Bioelectrography", 2007), and therefore, many foreign and domestic researchers have tried to give a different, more unambiguous and universal name to the method of GDV. The term "CROWNOSCOPY" emphasizes the fact of observation and analysis of crown-discharge images, and also marks a new milestone — a dynamic approach in the study of crown discharge of objects of biological and physical nature.

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